does India need a two-child policy
Let us begin with some facts and the statements of well-decorated national and international organizations
1) According to the Worldometers, the total world population of 2019 is 7.7 billion
2) here is the list of top most populated countries of the globe
a) China is ranking on the first slot with 1,389,618,771 population
b) India is ranking on the second slot with1,311,559,204 population
c) The United States has been slotted on the third rank with 331,883,906 population
d) Indonesia, Pakistan, Brazil, Nigeria are further slotted according to their population
3) India’s population is equal to 17.71% of the total world population
4) India is projected to surpass China as the world’s most populous country by the year 2027
5) India’s population grew to 136 crores, at an average annual rate of 1.2% between 2010 to 2019, which is more than the growth rate of China’s population
6) India is expected to add nearly 27.3 crores people in the world between 2019 to 2050
7) The average number of births per women was 4.8 in the year 1969
8) The average number of births per woman was 2.9 in the year 1994
9) The average number of births per woman is 2.5 in 2019
10) The share of aged 60years or above is projected to be increased by 20% by 2050
11) The World’s population is expected to jump from 770 crores in 2019 to 970 crores in 2050
12) More than 50% of the projected increase in the global population will be concentrated in 9 countries following- India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Egypt, and the USA
13) bY 2050, one in six in the world will be over age 65, up from one in 11 in 2019
14) The number of a person aged 80 years or above is projected to triple from 14.3 crores to in 2019to 42.6 crores in 2050
15) A growing number of countries are experiencing a reduction in population caused by sustained low levels of fertility.
As we all know that India falls under the overpopulated countries of the world and hold the second slot in this concern with the recent population of 136 crores and is expected to add 27.3 crores people more till the year 2050.
We are all aware of hoe big problem overpopulation in our country is. But do not, literally, pays attention to this alarming situation. Due to which the resources get dwindle, environmental destruction gets aggravated, and problems such as unemployment and poverty follow. Not only poverty but crimes, starvation, diseases, environmental pollution also get affected, directly or indirectly.
As a part of the solution to it, State governments like Assam have decided to bring in the “two-child policy”. It has been declared I Assam if one has more than two kids after 2021 then you will be denied for any government job and along with it, the person would be not able to contest Local body elections and Panchayat elections.
There are efforts been made to bring in a population control bill even at the central government level. In fact, the population control bill was presented in the Rajya Sabha which proposes to implement the “two-child policy”, nationwide. There was certain strict rule were listed as:
a) first of all it proposed that, under the proposal, the person who has more than two kids would be denied any government job.
b) the person would be denied the government subsidies.
c) they would be excluded through the schemes and programs run by the government, etc.
There are some rumors in the air talking about the stripping off, even, the voting rights of people who have more than two kids.
So, is this the right method of fighting overpopulation, in the country?
First of all, we should be aware of our country’s daily ups and downs, rise, and falls. So, Assam is not the only one state implementing the “two-child policy, there is 12 state who has brought in this policy already, in the country. This law has been already introduced, it is not for the first time, even though this has been introduced, implemented and removed from many states.
Including Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Odissa, Chhattisgarh, Gujrat, Maharashtra, and Uttrakhand these are the states where the “two-child policy” is already has been introduced and Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh these are the states where the implemented “two-child policy” is been removed after implementation.
There is a section which is against this policy of ‘two-child’. This group of people says that this will have a deleterious effect on women. Just for an instance, suppose a person or a leader wants to contest in elections and he has three children then he is, most probably, expected to leave her wife with a divorce and could to claim his contestant in the elections. As a result, the woman will be alone with three children having no back support. In this way, the opposing group does not stand with it.
For better accountability and analysis, we need to look in-depth into this issue. And for that, we are needed to look over those states or countries where these kinds of policies have been introduced already. We are further supposed to look over the consequences and effects of the policy on the economy, environment, and other aspects, as well.
It would be best f we could choose China’s One-Child Policy as an example.
ONE CHILD POLICY- CHINA
There are a lot of people who think that the Indian government should introduce a ‘one-child policy to India as implemented in China. The major reason for these kinds of statements is the economy and growth of China. Instead of the topped ranked number one overpopulated country, China has been developed its country so well.
People talking about in favor of China’s one-child policy is actually do not know that this policy was the failure of China.
With the intention of population control, China introduced the One-child Policy but as time flew away, the negative consequences could be witnessed until 2005. The root cause of the huge failure of this policy was gender-biased citizens. The Chinese people are like Indian gender-biased people. If they could prefer only one child then they preferred it for the male child, which led to rampant female foeticide abortions.
This led to the world’s worst ratio of China country in between2005 to 2008. The ratio reached 120 Men: 100 Females. This gets us to a result that in 2011 there was 34 million more population of men as compared to women.
This led to a practice in Chia called, ‘Bride Price’. The practice in which the families of females were bribed and offered money to marry their son, just because there was less number of girls.
Another big consequences created was the problem of 4-2-1. The 4-2-1 problem follows a burden of 6 on the one. This means there is a family tree where at the upper level, there are 2 pair of grandparents( 4 members) whose responsibilities are taken by one couple( two members) and at the least level there is a single member, in one-child policy, which is paying for his parents (two members) and his grandparents (four members).
This issue led to the economic crisis in a family tree because there is a single member paying for their pensions, necessities, and other bills and stuff. There are many developed countries facing the problem of 4-2-1, and till yet the problem has not been sorted out.
It would sound wore but as a fact, under-population is playing a huge factor or problem in some countries. Just think if old age people get maximum in number then they would demand a pension, who is not working but taking a pension from society. and if the young age or working-age population gets minimize then the number of people who are working and generating money, will get reduced Environmentally it is totally good because the much less the people will be, the less they use resources.
Knowing these consequences might be the reason behung the removal of the One-child Policy from China. Shockingly, in countries like Singapore and Germany, the extra amount of money is been paid to the citizens by the government if they give birth to more children.
Talking about the solution of it are totally basic simple and effective, forever. There are three terms in which the solution can define for this alarming issue. And the solutions are developments in quality education, Health care facilities, and economic development.
Education or the literacy rate, however directly hits the consequences of the fertility rate. For general information, the Fertility rate is the number of children a woman produces on an average rate and the literacy rate shows how the rate of literacy of a population. State, where the Literacy rate is high, has the lowest fertility rate and vice-versa.
For example Kerala, where the literacy rate is highest to 93.91% it has a fertility rate of 1.8. On the other hand, a state like Bihar where the literacy rate is low to 63% it has got the highest fertility rate is highest to 3.5. This means a woman in Bihar produces 3.5 children about an average.
Similarly, looking at the other states’ example we have Goa with a literacy rate of 87.4% and the fertility rate of 1.4, Rajasthan with 67% literacy rate and 2.9 fertility rates.
So this could be seen that the literacy rate or we can say education has a great and direct impact on the fertility rate, which is the main cause of overpopulation in India.
Similarly, there is a direct relationship between the per capita income and fertility rate. If the person or per capita income of a person is high then he must have fewer kids and infant mortality rate and fertility rate. Hence, the state having good health care facilities, witnesses less death and automatically they got less fertility rate.
The main reason behind this is the socio-economic factor. As you know that state like Punjab is well developed economically and in sectors of education and health and care, in comparison with the state like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
So education, health care facilities and economic developments are essential things that directly hit the fertility rate and hence the issue of overpopulation. In the last 20-30 years, the fertility rate of India is falling rapidly. more than 20 states have been reached to the replacement fertility level. ‘Replacement Fertility level is the level where the population is called or assumed to be stable.
In the end, it would good to say that, states like Bihar, UP, etc., are needed to set quality education, health care centers along with better economic growth.
does India need a two-child policy…